Skip to Main Content
It looks like you're using Internet Explorer 11 or older. This website works best with modern browsers such as the latest versions of Chrome, Firefox, Safari, and Edge. If you continue with this browser, you may see unexpected results.

Chicago/Turabian Citation Guide (17th Edition): Author-Date

About In-Text Citations in Chicago/Turabian

In Chicago/Turabian, you only need to provide in-text citations if you are using the Author-Date version of the style (a more detailed explanation is available here). If you are using the Notes-Bibliography style, you should use footnotes instead. Speak to your teacher about which best suits your assignment.
 
If you are using the Author-Date style, follow the rules listed below. Ensure that each in-text citation corresponds to a complete entry in the Reference List at the end of your assignment.

Number of Authors/Editors

Format of In-Text Citation

One Author

 (Author's Last Name Date of Publication)

 Example: (Matthews 1999)

Two Authors

 (Author's Last Name and Author's Last Name Date of Publication)

 Example: (Simmons and Green 1997)

Three Authors 

(Author's Last Name, Author's Last Name, and Author's Last Name Date of Publication

Example: (Lester, Brown, and Withers 1987)

Four or More Authors

 (Author's Last Name et al. Date

 Example: (Forman et al. 1987)


Quoting and Paraphrasing: What's the Difference?

There are two ways to integrate others' research into your assignment: you can paraphrase or you can quote.

Paraphrasing is used to show that you understand what the author wrote. You must reword the passage, expressing the ideas in your own words, and not just change a few words here and there. Make sure to also include an in-text citation.

Quoting is copying a selection from someone else's work, phrasing it exactly it was originally written. When quoting, place quotation marks (" ") around the selected passage to show where the quote begins and where it ends. Make sure to include an in-text citation.

Signal Phrases

If you refer to the author's name in a sentence you do not have to include the name again as part of your in-text citation. Instead include the page number (if there is one) at the end of the quotation or paraphrased section. 

Example:

Hunt (2007) explains that mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development."

Quoting Directly

When you quote directly from a source, enclose the quoted section in quotation marks. Add an in-text citation at the end of the quote with the author name and page number, like this:

"Here's a direct quote" (Smith 2006).

"Here's a direct quote" (The Trouble with Travelling 1987).

 Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation.

Example:

Mother-infant attachment has been a leading topic of developmental research since John Bowlby found that "children raised in institutions were deficient in emotional and personality development" (Hunt 2007).

Paraphrasing

When you write information or ideas from a source in your own words, cite the source by adding an in-text citation at the end of the paraphrased portion. Include the author's last name and date of publication.

This is a paraphrase (Smith 2006).

This is a paraphrase (My Favorite Murder 2018).

 Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation.


No Known Author

If the author's name is not provided, use the title instead. If the source is a book, journal, newspaper, magazine, blog, play, podcast, or online book, the title should go in italics. If the source is an article, book chapter, encyclopedia entry, individual web page, individual blog entry, unpublished work, dissertation, thesis, or a podcast episode, the title should go in quotation marks.

Example:

"There tend to be a great deal of barriers between information and the people who seek it, often those barriers are economic, social, or geographic. The internet allows us to break through some of those barriers" (The British History Podcast 2018).

"Clothes are the records of the bodies we've lived in" ("Articles of Interest" 2019).

 Note: The period goes outside the brackets, at the end of your in-text citation.

Page, Section, and Paragraph Numbers

Page Numbers

If your source has page numbers, add them to the in-text citation following the date of publication.

Example:

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 2007, 43).

Note: If the paraphrased information/idea is from several pages, include all of the page numbers.

Example:

Mother-infant attachment became a leading topic of developmental research following the publication of John Bowlby's studies (Hunt 2007, 55, 65-71).

Section and Paragraph Numbers

If you use a source that has no page numbers, provide a section or paragraph number if you need to be specific.

Example:

(Derrida, 1994, sec. 2, para. 7)

Works Quoted in Another Source

The Chicago Manual of Style discourages writers from using sources that are paraphrased or quoted in other sources. These are called indirect sources. Use them only if necessary, and if you do so, you must provide both the original and secondary source in your Reference list. 

To do an in-text citation of an indirect source, mention the original source in the body of your paper and add (quoted in Author's Last Name Date) to indicate the secondary source where the information appeared. 

Example:

​In Louis Zukofsky’s “Sincerity and Objectification,” from the February 1931 issue of Poetry magazine (quoted in Costello 1981), he states that the sincere are not exempt from objectifying others.

In-Text Citation for More Than One Source

If you would like to cite more than one source within the same in-text citation, simply record the in-text citations as normal and separate them with a semi-colon. These must go in alphabetical order.

Examples:

(Bennett 2010; Smith 2007). 

(Brock 1978; It Takes Two 1956).

Long Quotations

What Is a Long Quotation?

If your quotation is longer than four lines, it is a considered a long quotation. This can also be referred to as a block quotation.

Rules for Long Quotations

There are 4 rules that apply to long quotations that are different from regular quotations:

  1. Place a colon at the end of the line that you write to introduce your long quotation.
  2. Indent the long quotation 0.5 inches from the rest of the text, so it looks like a block of text.
  3. Do not put quotation marks around the quotation.
  4. Place the period at the end of the quotation before your in-text citation instead of after, as with regular quotations.

Example of a Long Quotation

At the end of Lord of the Flies the boys are struck with the realization of their behaviour:

The tears began to flow and sobs shook him. He gave himself up to them now for the first time on the island; great, shuddering spasms of grief that seemed to wrench his whole body. His voice rose under the black smoke before the burning wreckage of the island; and infected by that emotion, the other little boys began to shake and sob too. (Golding 1960,186)

Style Guides

Lower Canada College Libraries

514-482-9916 ext. 473

Follow us on Pinterestopen sora app

LCC is an English coeducational K-11 school leading to the MEES Secondary Leaving Diploma / LCC est une école anglophone mixte de la maternelle à la 5e secondaire menant au DES du MEES.